Tag Archives: critique

Appreciative Inquiry as a variety of religious experience

In an article in the journal AI (Appreciative Inquiry) Practitioner in 2012, the author and AI practitioner Gervase Bushe quotes from some of his personal correspondence with one of the founders of AI, David Cooperrider. They had both been deliberating over the reflexive turn that AI scholarship has taken during the last few years, where it has begun to acknowledge what it refers to as the ‘shadow side’ of organisational life, which practitioners have begun to worry may have been covered over by an appreciative approach, or even may be provoked by it. Cooperrider is tempted to resist this critical development, concerned as he is at the possible reintroduction of what he considers ‘deficit modelling’ and draws on William James’ Varieties of Religious Experience to describe a kind of ‘hot and alive’ state that he is trying to engender: ‘I think we are still on this quest for a full-blown non-deficit theory of change…Whether someone would call the initiating experience ‘positive’ or ‘negative’, the transformational moment is a pro-fusion moment when something so deeply good and loving is touched in us that everything is changed…I don’t think we  really understand the possibilities of that kind of change that kind of change yet and we aren’t going to until we take this to the extremes.’

Although he slightly mangles the quotation in Bushe’s article, Cooperrider  is drawing from one of James’ chapters on religious conversion, where he describes the psychological changes which occur when someone experiences a profound religious conversion: ‘All we know is that there are dead feeling, dead ideas, and cold beliefs, and there are hot and live ones; and when one grows hot and alive within us, everything has to re-crytallize about it.’ James argues that such experiences can be transformative and create new and stable states of equilibrium. The new state of conversion is experienced by the individual as overcoming a divided and wavering self, which has previously comprised a lower and higher part of him or herself. To experience religious belief is to identify with the higher part:

He becomes conscious that this higher part is coterminous and continuous with a MORE of the same quality, which is operative in the universe outside of him, and which he can keep in touch with, and in a fashion get on board of and save himself when all his lower being has gone to pieces in the wreck.

Cooperrider, via James, is making a direct claim for what he clearly considers to be the spiritual and transcendental potential of AI, that by enquiring into the good we can transform people, and institutions, to the good. Continue reading

The trouble with critique

When I join with others in offering a critique of dominant ways of thinking about managing organisations from a perspective informed by analogies from the complexity sciences I often experience a critique in return. This is to be expected in the sense that if there was no reaction then I would would scarcely be offering a critique, and/or the dominant discourse would not be dominating. In order to dominate certain ways of understanding the world are expressed and re-expressed in slightly different form as they encounter resistance. In my turn, and for colleagues trying to work with a similar perspective, our ideas encounter resistance and are hardened, refined or changed . This is the process of dialectic.

However, there are some common themes in the resistance to the critique that we offer. Continue reading